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Wastewater Treatment


Wastewater is water that has been used and must be processed before it is discharged into another body of water to prevent more water supplies from being contaminated. Wastewater originates from a number of sources. Wastewater is something that you flush down the toilet or scrub down the sink. Rainwater and drainage go down street gutters, along with different contaminants, and ultimately end up at a wastewater treatment plant. Wastewater may also come from sources that are agricultural and commercial.

Some wastewaters are more difficult to treat than others; industrial wastewater, for example, can be difficult to treat, whereas domestic wastewater is relatively easy to treat (although the treatment of domestic waste is becoming increasingly difficult because of increased amounts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in domestic wastewater.

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Waste Water Treatment

Two major levels of treatment of waste water are available: primary and secondary treatment.

Solids are allowed to settle and be separated from waste water in the primary stage. To further purify waste water, the secondary stage utilizes biological processes. These phases are also mixed and further treatment, such as tertiary treatment and specialized waste water treatment, is used in some cases.

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Primary Treatment

Primary treatment extracts material that either floats or gravity settles out readily. This therapy requires the physical techniques of screening, comminution, grit removal and sedimentation, the process of reducing a substance to minute flakes or fragments.

It runs though a screen as wastewater reaches a facility for treatment. This prevents large floating items that clog drains or destroy machinery, such as rags and sticks. When the waste water has been screened, it reaches a chamber of grit, where cinders, sand, and tiny stones settle down to the floor.

Once the screening process is complete and grit has been eliminated, the waste water, along with other suspended solids, also includes organic and inorganic matter.

In a sedimentation pool, these solids should be eliminated. By draining, biosolids are normally removed from tanks.

According to the EPA, primary treatment alone is becoming rapidly insufficient to meet the water quality requirements of many populations. As a consequence, it is usually treated at a secondary care stage for cities and factories and, in some situations, specialized treatment is used to eliminate nutrients and residual toxins.

Secondary Treatment

The soluble organic matter that escapes primary treatment is eliminated through secondary treatment.
Secondary therapy often eliminates more suspended solids, typically by biological mechanisms in which organic impurities are ingested as food by bacteria and then converted into carbon dioxide, water and electricity.

The removal at the treatment plant of soluble organic matter helps to protect the dissolved oxygen content of the receiving stream, rivers, or lakes.

By making use of the bacteria in it, according to the EPA, the secondary stage of treatment removes about 85 percent of the organic matter in sewage. The trickling filter and the activated sludge process are the principal secondary treatment techniques used in secondary treatment.

It flows or is pumped to a facility using one of these procedures after effluent leaves the sedimentation tank in the primary stage. Instead of trickling filters, people tend to use the activated sludge process, since the activated sludge process speeds up the bacteria’s work.

After the sewage in the primary stage leaves the settling tank, it is pumped into an aeration tank. The bacteria break down the organic matter into harmless byproducts during this time.

With additional billions of bacteria and other small organisms, the sludge is now activated and can be used again by returning it to the aeration tank to be mixed with air and new sewage.

The partially treated sewage flows from the tank to another sedimentation tank for excess bacteria to be removed. The waste water from the sedimentation tank is usually disinfected with chlorine before being discharged in order to complete secondary treatment.

Many states now also require the removal of excess chlorine by a process called dichlorination, according to the EPA, prior to discharge into surface waters.

New pollutant removal methods, including advanced waste treatment, filtration, carbon adsorption, distillation and reverse osmosis, are being developed.

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